Simple Summary NPAS2, short for Neuronal PAS Domain Protein 2, is a transcription factor involved in regulating the circadian rhythms and sleep-wake cycles in mammals, including humans. It is a key component of the molecular clockwork that governs daily biological processes. NPAS2 binds heme as a prosthetic group and CO at micromolar concentrations, with ensuing changes in DNA affinity. In this way, gaseous signaling plus heme-based sensing and redox balance modify NPAS2 transcriptional activity and the expression of target genes. NPAS2 plays a crucial role in metabolism regulation and in maintaining the body's internal clock synchronized with the day-night cycle. Dysregulation of NPAS2 can lead to disruptions in circadian rhythms and may contribute to sleep disturbances, psychiatric disorders and other health issues, such as neoplastic, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Alternatively, NPAS2 could represent a valuable predictive biomarker for prevention/stratification strategies and a promising druggable target for innovative therapeutic approaches.Abstract Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) is a hemeprotein comprising a basic helix-loop-helix domain (bHLH) and two heme-binding sites, the PAS-A and PAS-B domains. This protein acts as a pyridine nucleotide-dependent and gas-responsive CO-dependent transcription factor and is encoded by a gene whose expression fluctuates with circadian rhythmicity. NPAS2 is a core cog of the molecular clockwork and plays a regulatory role on metabolic pathways, is important for the function of the central nervous system in mammals, and is involved in carcinogenesis as well as in normal biological functions and processes, such as cardiovascular function and wound healing. We reviewed the scientific literature addressing the various facets of NPAS2 and framing this gene/protein in several and very different research and clinical fields.

Role of the Circadian Gas-Responsive Hemeprotein NPAS2 in Physiology and Pathology

Bellet, Maria Marina;
2023

Abstract

Simple Summary NPAS2, short for Neuronal PAS Domain Protein 2, is a transcription factor involved in regulating the circadian rhythms and sleep-wake cycles in mammals, including humans. It is a key component of the molecular clockwork that governs daily biological processes. NPAS2 binds heme as a prosthetic group and CO at micromolar concentrations, with ensuing changes in DNA affinity. In this way, gaseous signaling plus heme-based sensing and redox balance modify NPAS2 transcriptional activity and the expression of target genes. NPAS2 plays a crucial role in metabolism regulation and in maintaining the body's internal clock synchronized with the day-night cycle. Dysregulation of NPAS2 can lead to disruptions in circadian rhythms and may contribute to sleep disturbances, psychiatric disorders and other health issues, such as neoplastic, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Alternatively, NPAS2 could represent a valuable predictive biomarker for prevention/stratification strategies and a promising druggable target for innovative therapeutic approaches.Abstract Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) is a hemeprotein comprising a basic helix-loop-helix domain (bHLH) and two heme-binding sites, the PAS-A and PAS-B domains. This protein acts as a pyridine nucleotide-dependent and gas-responsive CO-dependent transcription factor and is encoded by a gene whose expression fluctuates with circadian rhythmicity. NPAS2 is a core cog of the molecular clockwork and plays a regulatory role on metabolic pathways, is important for the function of the central nervous system in mammals, and is involved in carcinogenesis as well as in normal biological functions and processes, such as cardiovascular function and wound healing. We reviewed the scientific literature addressing the various facets of NPAS2 and framing this gene/protein in several and very different research and clinical fields.
2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1566453
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