Context: In 2005, a nationwide program of iodine prophylaxis on a voluntary basis was implemented in Italy by law. However, recent data on iodine status are lacking.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficiency, effectiveness, and possible adverse effects (increased occurrence of thyroid autoimmunity and hyperthyroidism) of the Italian iodine prophylaxis program.Methods: From 2015 to 2019, a nationwide survey was performed. The use of iodized salt was evaluated in a sample of 164 593 adults and in 998 school canteens. A sample of 4233 schoolchildren (aged 11-13 years) was recruited to assess urinary iodine concentration, prevalence of goiter, and thyroid hypoechogenicity on ultrasound, with the latter being an indirect indicator of thyroid autoimmunity. Neonatal TSH values of 197 677 infants screened in regions representative of Northern, Central, and Southern Italy were analyzed to investigate the percentage of TSH values >5.0 mIU/L. Data on methimazole prescriptions were analyzed as indirect indicators of new cases of hyperthyroidism.Results: The prevalence of the use of iodized salt was 71.5% in adult population and 78% in school canteens. A median urinary iodine concentration of 124 mu g/L, a prevalence of goiter of 2.2%, and a prevalence of thyroid hypoechogenicity of 5.7% were observed in schoolchildren. The percentage of neonatal TSH values >5.0 mIU/L resulted still higher (5.1%) than the World Health Organization threshold of 3.0%, whereas the prescriptions of methimazole showed a reduction of 13.5%.Conclusion: Fifteen years of iodine prophylaxis have led to iodine sufficiency in Italy, although there still is concern about iodine nutritional status during pregnancy.

Fifteen Years of Iodine Prophylaxis in Italy: Results of a Nationwide Surveillance (Period 2015-2019)

Puxeddu, Efisio;
2023

Abstract

Context: In 2005, a nationwide program of iodine prophylaxis on a voluntary basis was implemented in Italy by law. However, recent data on iodine status are lacking.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficiency, effectiveness, and possible adverse effects (increased occurrence of thyroid autoimmunity and hyperthyroidism) of the Italian iodine prophylaxis program.Methods: From 2015 to 2019, a nationwide survey was performed. The use of iodized salt was evaluated in a sample of 164 593 adults and in 998 school canteens. A sample of 4233 schoolchildren (aged 11-13 years) was recruited to assess urinary iodine concentration, prevalence of goiter, and thyroid hypoechogenicity on ultrasound, with the latter being an indirect indicator of thyroid autoimmunity. Neonatal TSH values of 197 677 infants screened in regions representative of Northern, Central, and Southern Italy were analyzed to investigate the percentage of TSH values >5.0 mIU/L. Data on methimazole prescriptions were analyzed as indirect indicators of new cases of hyperthyroidism.Results: The prevalence of the use of iodized salt was 71.5% in adult population and 78% in school canteens. A median urinary iodine concentration of 124 mu g/L, a prevalence of goiter of 2.2%, and a prevalence of thyroid hypoechogenicity of 5.7% were observed in schoolchildren. The percentage of neonatal TSH values >5.0 mIU/L resulted still higher (5.1%) than the World Health Organization threshold of 3.0%, whereas the prescriptions of methimazole showed a reduction of 13.5%.Conclusion: Fifteen years of iodine prophylaxis have led to iodine sufficiency in Italy, although there still is concern about iodine nutritional status during pregnancy.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1566515
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