This brief review examines the phytopathological situation of sunflower in Italy from 1975 to 2004 with detailed concern to fungal diseases. At the beginning of 1980's, owing to the introduction of resistant hybrids to Plasmopara helianthi race 1 (the only one occurring in central Italy) and the Italian rule which imposes regulations for sunflower seed dressing, the downy mildew was no longer particularly relevant. During the 1990's restricted systemic P.helianthi infections were observed and greenhouse tests on differential lines showed the presence of a new race, R2. Recent surveys confirmed that P.helianthi is still an endemic disease but laboratory analyses on remnants of some commercial hybrid treated seeds revealed an insufficient seed dressing with metalaxyl and a loss of fungicide efficiency. Sclerotium bataticola and Phoma sp. are annually noted in sunflower crop with a variable incidence favoured by environmental conditions. Numerous new fungal diseases were reported during tha last thirty years but the pathogens for their low incidence and sporadic presence do not cause severe yield losses. Finally, it isi expected that sunflower, supported by appropiate agronomic and phytosanitary control measures, may represent an alternative crop in a sustainable agriculture.

Problematiche fitopatologiche del girasole in Italia

TOSI, Laura
2005

Abstract

This brief review examines the phytopathological situation of sunflower in Italy from 1975 to 2004 with detailed concern to fungal diseases. At the beginning of 1980's, owing to the introduction of resistant hybrids to Plasmopara helianthi race 1 (the only one occurring in central Italy) and the Italian rule which imposes regulations for sunflower seed dressing, the downy mildew was no longer particularly relevant. During the 1990's restricted systemic P.helianthi infections were observed and greenhouse tests on differential lines showed the presence of a new race, R2. Recent surveys confirmed that P.helianthi is still an endemic disease but laboratory analyses on remnants of some commercial hybrid treated seeds revealed an insufficient seed dressing with metalaxyl and a loss of fungicide efficiency. Sclerotium bataticola and Phoma sp. are annually noted in sunflower crop with a variable incidence favoured by environmental conditions. Numerous new fungal diseases were reported during tha last thirty years but the pathogens for their low incidence and sporadic presence do not cause severe yield losses. Finally, it isi expected that sunflower, supported by appropiate agronomic and phytosanitary control measures, may represent an alternative crop in a sustainable agriculture.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11391/18686
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