Information on the physical and chemical properties of the lithosphere–asthenosphere system (LAS) can be obtained by geophysical investigation and by studies of petrology–geochemistry of magmatic rocks and entrained xenoliths. Integration of petrological and geophysical studies is particularly useful in geodynamically complex areas characterised by abundant and compositionally variable young magmatism, such as in the Tyrrhenian Sea and surroundings. A thin crust, less than 10 km, overlying a soft mantle (where partial melting can reach about 10%) is observed for Magnaghi, Vavilov and Marsili, which belong to the Central Tyrrhenian Sea backarc volcanism where subalkaline rocks dominate. Similar characteristics are seen for the uppermost crust of Ischia. A crust about 20 km thick is observed for the majority of the continental volcanoes, including Amiata–Vulsini, Roccamonfina, Phlegraean Fields–Vesuvius, Vulture, Stromboli, Vulcano–Lipari, Etna and Ustica. A thicker crust is present at Albani – about 25 km – and at Cimino–Vico–Sabatini — about 30 km. The structure of the upper mantle, in contrast, shows striking differences among various volcanic provinces. Volcanoes of the Roman region (Vulsini–Sabatini–Alban Hills) sit over an upper mantle characterised by Vs mostly ranging from about 4.2 to 4.4 km/s. At the Alban Hills, however, slightly lower Vs values of about 4.1 km/s are detected between 60 and 120 km of depth. This parallels the similar and rather homogeneous compositional features of the Roman volcanoes, whereas the lower Vs values detected at the Alban Hills may reflect the occurrence of small amounts of melts within the mantle, in agreement with the younger age of this volcano. The axial zone of the Apennines, where ultrapotassic kamafugitic volcanoes are present, has a mantle structure with high velocity lid (Vs ∼4.5 km/s) occurring at the base of a 40-km-thick crust. Beneath the Campanian volcanoes of Vesuvius and Phlegraean Fields, the mantle structure shows a rigid body dipping westward, a feature that continues southward, up to the eastern Aeolian arc. In contrast, at Ischia the upper mantle contains a shallow low-velocity layer (Vs=3.5–4.0 km/s) just beneath a thin but complex crust. The western Aeolian arc and Ustica sit over an upper mantle with Vs ∼ 4.2–4.4 km/s, although a rigid layer (Vs=4.55 km/s) from about 80 to 150 km occurs beneath the western Aeolian arc. In Sardinia, no significant differences in the LAS structure are detected from north to south. The petrological–geochemical signatures of Italian volcanoes show strong variations that allow us to distinguish several magmatic provinces. These often coincide with mantle sectors identified by Vs tomography. For instance, the Roman volcanoes show remarkable similar petrological and geochemical characteristics, mirroring similar structure of the LAS. The structure and geochemical-isotopic composition of the upper mantle change significantly when we move to the Stromboli–Campanian volcanoes. The geochemical signatures of Ischia and Procida volcanoes are similar to other Campanian centres, but Sr–Pb isotopic ratios are lower marking a transition to the backarc mantle of the Central Tyrrhenian Sea. The structural variations from Stromboli to the central (Vulcano and Lipari) and western Aeolian arc are accompanied by strong variations of geochemical signatures, such as a decrease of Sr-isotope ratios and an increase of Nd-, Pb-isotope and LILE/HFSE ratios. The dominance of mafic subalkaline magmatism in the Tyrrhenian Sea basin denotes large degrees of partial melting, well in agreement with the soft characteristics of the uppermost mantle in this area. In contrast, striking isotopic differences of Plio-Quaternary volcanic rocks from southern to northern Sardinia does not find a match in the LAS geophysical characteristics. The combination of petrological and geophysical constraints allows us to propose a 3D schematic geodynamic model of the Tyrrhenian basin and bordering volcanic areas, including the subduction of the Ionian–Adria lithosphere in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, and to place constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the whole region.

Geophysical and petrological modelling of the structure and composition of the crust and upper mantle in complex geodynamic settings: the case of the Tyrrhenian Sea and surroundings

PECCERILLO, Angelo;
2007

Abstract

Information on the physical and chemical properties of the lithosphere–asthenosphere system (LAS) can be obtained by geophysical investigation and by studies of petrology–geochemistry of magmatic rocks and entrained xenoliths. Integration of petrological and geophysical studies is particularly useful in geodynamically complex areas characterised by abundant and compositionally variable young magmatism, such as in the Tyrrhenian Sea and surroundings. A thin crust, less than 10 km, overlying a soft mantle (where partial melting can reach about 10%) is observed for Magnaghi, Vavilov and Marsili, which belong to the Central Tyrrhenian Sea backarc volcanism where subalkaline rocks dominate. Similar characteristics are seen for the uppermost crust of Ischia. A crust about 20 km thick is observed for the majority of the continental volcanoes, including Amiata–Vulsini, Roccamonfina, Phlegraean Fields–Vesuvius, Vulture, Stromboli, Vulcano–Lipari, Etna and Ustica. A thicker crust is present at Albani – about 25 km – and at Cimino–Vico–Sabatini — about 30 km. The structure of the upper mantle, in contrast, shows striking differences among various volcanic provinces. Volcanoes of the Roman region (Vulsini–Sabatini–Alban Hills) sit over an upper mantle characterised by Vs mostly ranging from about 4.2 to 4.4 km/s. At the Alban Hills, however, slightly lower Vs values of about 4.1 km/s are detected between 60 and 120 km of depth. This parallels the similar and rather homogeneous compositional features of the Roman volcanoes, whereas the lower Vs values detected at the Alban Hills may reflect the occurrence of small amounts of melts within the mantle, in agreement with the younger age of this volcano. The axial zone of the Apennines, where ultrapotassic kamafugitic volcanoes are present, has a mantle structure with high velocity lid (Vs ∼4.5 km/s) occurring at the base of a 40-km-thick crust. Beneath the Campanian volcanoes of Vesuvius and Phlegraean Fields, the mantle structure shows a rigid body dipping westward, a feature that continues southward, up to the eastern Aeolian arc. In contrast, at Ischia the upper mantle contains a shallow low-velocity layer (Vs=3.5–4.0 km/s) just beneath a thin but complex crust. The western Aeolian arc and Ustica sit over an upper mantle with Vs ∼ 4.2–4.4 km/s, although a rigid layer (Vs=4.55 km/s) from about 80 to 150 km occurs beneath the western Aeolian arc. In Sardinia, no significant differences in the LAS structure are detected from north to south. The petrological–geochemical signatures of Italian volcanoes show strong variations that allow us to distinguish several magmatic provinces. These often coincide with mantle sectors identified by Vs tomography. For instance, the Roman volcanoes show remarkable similar petrological and geochemical characteristics, mirroring similar structure of the LAS. The structure and geochemical-isotopic composition of the upper mantle change significantly when we move to the Stromboli–Campanian volcanoes. The geochemical signatures of Ischia and Procida volcanoes are similar to other Campanian centres, but Sr–Pb isotopic ratios are lower marking a transition to the backarc mantle of the Central Tyrrhenian Sea. The structural variations from Stromboli to the central (Vulcano and Lipari) and western Aeolian arc are accompanied by strong variations of geochemical signatures, such as a decrease of Sr-isotope ratios and an increase of Nd-, Pb-isotope and LILE/HFSE ratios. The dominance of mafic subalkaline magmatism in the Tyrrhenian Sea basin denotes large degrees of partial melting, well in agreement with the soft characteristics of the uppermost mantle in this area. In contrast, striking isotopic differences of Plio-Quaternary volcanic rocks from southern to northern Sardinia does not find a match in the LAS geophysical characteristics. The combination of petrological and geophysical constraints allows us to propose a 3D schematic geodynamic model of the Tyrrhenian basin and bordering volcanic areas, including the subduction of the Ionian–Adria lithosphere in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, and to place constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the whole region.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11391/30721
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