In mammals, amino acid metabolism has evolved to control immune responses. Autoimmune diseases are heterogeneous conditions that involve the breakdown of tolerogenic circuitries and consequent activation of autoreactive immune cells. Therefore, critical enzymes along amino acid degradative pathways may be hijacked to keep in check autoimmunity. We examined here current knowledge of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and arginase 1 (ARG1), the main enzymes catabolizing tryptophan and arginine, respectively, in organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases as well as in the development of autoantibodies to therapeutic proteins. At variance with neoplastic contexts, in which it is known to act as a pure immunosuppressive molecule, ARG1 exhibited a protective or pathogenetic profile, depending on the disease. In contrast, in several autoimmune conditions, the bulk of data indicated that drugs capable of potentiating IDO1 expression and activity may represent valuable therapeutic tools and that IDO1-based immunotherapeutic protocols could be more effective if tailored to the genetic profile of individual patients.

Amino acid metabolism as drug target in autoimmune diseases

Mondanelli, Giada;Iacono, Alberta;Carvalho, Agostinho;Orabona, Ciriana;Volpi, Claudia;Pallotta, Maria T.;Matino, Davide;Esposito, Susanna;Grohmann, Ursula
2019-01-01

Abstract

In mammals, amino acid metabolism has evolved to control immune responses. Autoimmune diseases are heterogeneous conditions that involve the breakdown of tolerogenic circuitries and consequent activation of autoreactive immune cells. Therefore, critical enzymes along amino acid degradative pathways may be hijacked to keep in check autoimmunity. We examined here current knowledge of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and arginase 1 (ARG1), the main enzymes catabolizing tryptophan and arginine, respectively, in organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases as well as in the development of autoantibodies to therapeutic proteins. At variance with neoplastic contexts, in which it is known to act as a pure immunosuppressive molecule, ARG1 exhibited a protective or pathogenetic profile, depending on the disease. In contrast, in several autoimmune conditions, the bulk of data indicated that drugs capable of potentiating IDO1 expression and activity may represent valuable therapeutic tools and that IDO1-based immunotherapeutic protocols could be more effective if tailored to the genetic profile of individual patients.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1448365
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