Objective: To investigate the biological effects of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) and heated tobacco product extracts respect to tobacco smoke extract on human gingival fibroblasts and human oral keratinocytes analysing cell viability, morphology, migration, apoptosis, cell cycle and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Design: Human gingival fibroblasts and human oral keratinocytes viability was analysed by MTT assay, cell morphology using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and cell migration by Scratch assay, a method that mimics the cell migration during wound healing in vivo. Apoptosis and cell cycle were analysed with flow cytometry and the related-gene expression of TP53, BCL2, CDKN2A and CDKN1A was indagated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. EMT process was analysed through expression of specific markers: CDH1, SNAI2, TWIST1, MMP2, FN1 and VIM. All investigations were evaluated after 24 h an in vitro exposure. Results: Undiluted tobacco smoke extract induced significant inhibition of cell viability and cell migration, caused morphological alterations and induced an increase in cell death. No alterations or damage were observed after treatment with e-cigarette extracts. Heated tobacco product extract induced proliferation as highlighted by an increase of cell viability, cell migration and alterations of cycle analysis. Conclusions: Comparing the different cigarette extracts, tobacco smoke turns out to be the most harmful, e-cigarette did not determine morphological and functional alterations and heated tobacco product must be carefully investigated for its possible clinical effects on oral cell populations.

In Vitro effects of alternative smoking devices on oral cells: Electronic cigarette and heated tobacco product versus tobacco smoke

Lorella Marinucci;Maddalena Coniglio;Chiara Valenti;Serena Massari;Alessandro Di Michele;Monia Billi;Stefano Bruscoli;Paolo Negri;Guido Lombardo;Stefano Cianetti;Stefano Pagano
2022

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the biological effects of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) and heated tobacco product extracts respect to tobacco smoke extract on human gingival fibroblasts and human oral keratinocytes analysing cell viability, morphology, migration, apoptosis, cell cycle and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Design: Human gingival fibroblasts and human oral keratinocytes viability was analysed by MTT assay, cell morphology using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and cell migration by Scratch assay, a method that mimics the cell migration during wound healing in vivo. Apoptosis and cell cycle were analysed with flow cytometry and the related-gene expression of TP53, BCL2, CDKN2A and CDKN1A was indagated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. EMT process was analysed through expression of specific markers: CDH1, SNAI2, TWIST1, MMP2, FN1 and VIM. All investigations were evaluated after 24 h an in vitro exposure. Results: Undiluted tobacco smoke extract induced significant inhibition of cell viability and cell migration, caused morphological alterations and induced an increase in cell death. No alterations or damage were observed after treatment with e-cigarette extracts. Heated tobacco product extract induced proliferation as highlighted by an increase of cell viability, cell migration and alterations of cycle analysis. Conclusions: Comparing the different cigarette extracts, tobacco smoke turns out to be the most harmful, e-cigarette did not determine morphological and functional alterations and heated tobacco product must be carefully investigated for its possible clinical effects on oral cell populations.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1535838
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