Understanding the time-dependent relationship between the Sun’s variability and cosmic rays (GCR) is essential for developing predictive models of energetic radiation in space. When traveling inside the heliosphere, GCRs are affected by magnetic turbulence and solar wind disturbances which result in the so-called solar modulation effect. To investigate this phenomenon, we have performed a data-driven analysis of the temporal dependence of the GCR flux over the solar cycle. With a global statistical inference of GCR data collected in space by AMS-02 and PAMELA on monthly basis, we have determined the rigidity and time dependence of the GCR diffusion mean free path. Here we present our results for GCR protons, we discuss their interpretation in terms of basic processes of particle transport and their relations with the dynamics of the heliospheric plasma.
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