The effectiveness of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in preventing COVID-19 or in reducing severe illness in subjects hospitalized for COVID-19 despite vaccination has been unequivocally shown. However, no studies so far have assessed if subjects who get COVID-19 despite vaccination are protected from SARS-CoV-2-induced platelet, neutrophil and endothelial activation, biomarkers associated with thrombosis and worse outcome. In this pilot study, we show that previous vaccination blunts COVID-19-associated platelet activation, assessed by circulating platelet-derived microvesicles and soluble P-selectin, and neutrophil activation, assessed by circulating neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) biomarkers and matrix metalloproteinase-9, and reduces COVID-19-associated thrombotic events, hospitalization in intensive-care units and death.
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