Estimating the state of charge (SOC) of batteries is fundamental for the proper management and safe operation of numerous systems, including electric vehicles, smart energy grids, and portable electronics. While there is no practical method for direct measurement of SOC, several estimation approaches have been developed, including a growing number of machine-learning-based techniques. Machine learning methods are intrinsically data-driven but can also benefit from a-priori knowledge embedded in a model. In this work, we first demonstrate, through exploratory data analysis, that it is possible to discriminate between different SOC from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Then we propose a SOC estimation approach based on EIS and an equivalent circuit model to provide a compact way to describe the frequency domain and time-domain behavior of the impedance of a battery. We experimentally validated this approach by applying it to a dataset consisting of EIS measurements performed on four lithium-ion cylindrical cells at different SOC values. The proposed approach allows for very efficient model training and produces a low-dimensional SOC classification model that achieves above 93% accuracy. The resulting low-dimensional classification model is suitable for embedding into battery-powered systems and for online SOC estimation.
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