Diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS) are among the most disabling and the most difficult to cure due to the presence of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) which represents an impediment from a therapeutic and diagnostic point of view as it limits the entry of most drugs. The use of biocompatible polymer nanoparticles (NPs) as vehicles for targeted drug delivery to the brain arouses increasing interest. However, the route of administration of these vectors remains critical as the drug must be delivered without being degraded to achieve a therapeutic effect. An innovative approach for the administration of drugs to the brain using polymeric carriers is represented by the nose-to-brain (NtB) route which involves the administration of the therapeutic molecule through the neuro-olfactory epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Nasal administration is a non-invasive approach that allows the rapid transport of the drug directly to the brain and minimizes its systemic exposure. To date, many studies involve the use of polymer NPs for the NtB transport of drugs to the brain for the treatment of a whole series of disabling neurological diseases for which, as of today, there is no cure. In this review, various types of biodegradable polymer NPs for drug delivery to the brain through the NtB route are discussed and particular attention is devoted to the treatment of neurological diseases such as Glioblastoma and neurodegenerative diseases.

Biopolymer Nanoparticles for Nose-to-Brain Drug Delivery: A New Promising Approach for the Treatment of Neurological Diseases

Montegiove, Nicolo';Calzoni, Eleonora
;
Emiliani, Carla;Cesaretti, Alessio
2022

Abstract

Diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS) are among the most disabling and the most difficult to cure due to the presence of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) which represents an impediment from a therapeutic and diagnostic point of view as it limits the entry of most drugs. The use of biocompatible polymer nanoparticles (NPs) as vehicles for targeted drug delivery to the brain arouses increasing interest. However, the route of administration of these vectors remains critical as the drug must be delivered without being degraded to achieve a therapeutic effect. An innovative approach for the administration of drugs to the brain using polymeric carriers is represented by the nose-to-brain (NtB) route which involves the administration of the therapeutic molecule through the neuro-olfactory epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Nasal administration is a non-invasive approach that allows the rapid transport of the drug directly to the brain and minimizes its systemic exposure. To date, many studies involve the use of polymer NPs for the NtB transport of drugs to the brain for the treatment of a whole series of disabling neurological diseases for which, as of today, there is no cure. In this review, various types of biodegradable polymer NPs for drug delivery to the brain through the NtB route are discussed and particular attention is devoted to the treatment of neurological diseases such as Glioblastoma and neurodegenerative diseases.
2022
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1569954
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